Communicative Language Teaching
Background of CLT
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is a language teaching method is an extension of previous methods such as method of Situational Language Teaching and Audio Lingual method. One of the main characteristics of CLT is a combination of aspects of language are functionally and structurally. Structurally, CLT emphasis on grammar or grammar systems, while emphasizing the use of functional language.
CLT also stresses on the situation, for example in a situation of how a speech is spoken. In the CLT that there are various language skills (integrated skills) which includes the ability to reading, writing, listening, speaking, vocabulary, and grammar. So, through this CLT learners are expected to master a foreign language or language skilled, not only writing but also speaking and of course with proper grammar.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) originated from the changes in the British Situational Language Teaching approach dating from the late 1960s (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). Stemming from the socio-cognitive perspective of the socio-linguistic theory, with an emphasis on meaning and communication, and a goal to develop learners’ “communicative competence”, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach evolves as a prominent language teaching method and gradually replaced the previous grammar-translation method and audio-lingual method (Warschauer & Kern, 2000). Since the concept of “communicative competence” was first introduced by Hymes in the mid-1960s, many researchers have helped develop theories and practices of Communicative Language Teaching approach.
The Goal of CLT
As for some purpose of CLT include:
Students will learn to use language as a means to express something.
Students will use language as a tool to express their opinions and judgments.
Students will learn to express the functions that are most appropriate to communicate.
Strategy of CLT
Because CLT is such a broad orientation, it is difficult to give specific strategies. However, the broad guidelines are as follows:
Determine the communicative goals of the students
Create situations and activities in which student’s procedure authentic, meaningful, and contextualized communication.
Focus on accuracy only in as much as error that would impede communication is corrected.
CLT uses almost every activity that involves the learner in an authentic communication. Littlewood (1981) distinguish two types of activities:
Functional communication activities
Activities aimed to develop the ability (skill) and the function of a particular language, but it involves communication.
Social interaction activities
For example, conversations and discussions, dialogues and role-playing (role play).